In the present day we have machines. they are powerful.Human beings have emotions. They are also very powerful. Will machines destroy emotions, or will emotions destroy machines ? question was raised long Butler. But this question is When we first begin to think over this question, it is not easy to see and understand why there should be any opposition between two (machines and emotions). Every normal boy loves machines. are, the more strongly he loves them. Nations like the Japanese, who have long traditions of artistic excellence, are impressed by Western mechanical methods. An educated and widely travelled person connected with Asia feels much annoyed when he is asked to praise the wisdom of the East or the traditional virtue of Asiatic civilisation . He would feel unhappy as a boy who is asked to play with dolls rather than with toy automobiles. An Asiatic in spite of his artistic excellence will feel fascinated by machines or products of machinery

In the west also the early reaction to machinery was similar. People felt delighted in machinery without seriously considering its negative points. only a few of the people who  were poets and aesthetes did not like machines. The nineteenth century in England regarded itself superior to the previous age mainly because of its mechanical progress.Machines are worshipped because they are beautiful. They are valued because they give us  power. As they look ugly and enslave their users, they are hated. Whatever attitudes towards machines, none of them is either completely right or totally wrong. Bertrand Russell says that a machine is like the Djinn of the Arabian Nights. This Djinn appears profitable and beautiful to its master but ugly and terrible to its enemies. So far as the master of the machine is concerned, he lives at some distance from the machine. He is not aware of their ugly and unpleasant and even dangerous side. He admires them for their usefulness and reliability. it is only the operators of machines who are troubled by their ugliness, fumes, heat etc. If a worker complains about a machine, the master has a ready answer. He tells the workers that machines enable workers to earn more and purchase more goods than their forefathers could ever  purchase. The master makes the workers realise that machines have made them happier than their ancestors.It is believed that the possession of material things makes one happy. It is thought that a man who has two rooms and two beds and two loaves must be twice as happy as a man who has one room and one bed and one loaf. In brief, happiness is said to be proportional to Income some religious and morally upright people do not accept this view. They feel happy increase in income through machines. Bertrand Russell looks at the issue from the psychological point of view. We have physical needs and emotions. We give utmost importance to the satisfaction of our physical needs. The question of being happy or.unhappy later. In industrial societies also there are some men who remain too poor to satisfyearn more and buy more material goods to impress our neighbours  . The rich send their children to expensive schools and live in posh colonies and localities. They satisfy their desire to be  admired  and respected.  A millionaire  buys a  large  number  of paintings by old masters. he does so only to get pleasure from the thought that other know  about the  big  amount of money that he has spends.Image result for MACHINES AND THE EMOTIONS

 It has nothing to do with any love of art.

In the middle ages, people were admired for their literacy and artistic merits. Saints are even today admired in India while in China sages are admired for their wisdom. Saints and sages do not care for money. This proves that the modern desire for wealth is not inborn in   human nature, and so can be put in check. If a law is made to make sure that all people have the same income, we will in some other way try to become superior to our neighbours. Our riches give us happiness only when we excel our rivals. Therefore, a general increase of wealth does not bring any competitive happiness. Material prosperity does not necessarily   increase happiness. It can at best fight poverty or destitution. It is possible to control poverty in   •a country where population does not increase. In countries which are highly industrialised, the  number of poor people is very large. It is because of other factors such as density of population and political conditions in that country.Bertrand Russell argues - that machines that deprive use of _ two - things on which our happiness depends.These are spontaneity and variety. Machines need to be kept in motion.They have to kept in a state of regularity. Emotions thrive on variety and irregularity. When we say that a man is a machine, we mean to praise him for his virtues of punctuality, exactness and reliability, etc. Irregular life is considered to be a bad life. Man's slavery to machine is not a pleasant thing. From the point of emotions, the great trouble with machines is their regularity.  Emotional life is therefore regarded as an irregular life and so a bad life. Regular life 'is  possible with the machine. So it is punctual, exact, reliable etc. Russell holds machines responsible for making modern wars horrible. first, machines make  it possible to have large armies. Secondly they facilitate a cheap press. They starve the  anarchic. This is what concerns us the most. The author is of the view that the modern increase in war-like instinct is mainly due to the dissatisfaction caused by the monotony generally  associated with modern life. Image result for MACHINES AND THE EMOTIONS

The question to do away with machines is absurd. It is not even practicable. When we  encourage high adventure sports, we actually break the monotony created by the machines,

Though machines have changed our way of life, they have not changed our basic nature.  Moral preaching or laws cannot finish human instincts. We have to look for the least harmful ways of satisfying these instincts. We should provide opportunities for satisfying human  instincts. Providing opportunities is highly expensive, but this expenditure is much less as compared with the expenses of war. We must have a good _understanding of human nature. Science has mastered the laws of the physical world but it has failed to understand human nature. It is only understanding of human nature that will bring happiness into our lives.

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